Selected Technique:
Stone Columns

Treatment Area:

Project Depth:

The Vancouver International Airport Authority was expanding the international terminal with additional gates at Pier D.

Ground Conditions

The site’s subsurface stratigraphy consisted of the following:
  • Approx. 3m of compact to medium dense sand fill with some silt and gravel;
  • Underlain by 1m of soft to firm clay to silty clay;
  • Underlain by 14m of loose to compact silty sand to sand susceptible to liquefaction;
  • Over firm to stiff marine silt.


YVR Airport - Pier D Expansion, Richmond, British Colombia

YVR Airport – Pier D Expansion, Richmond, British Colombia

Groundwater was encountered at approximately 1.5m from the ground surface.

Menard Canada Solution

Vibro Replacement Stone Columns densification was required beneath the new building in order to prevent settlement caused by soil liquefaction in the event of an earthquake.

Menard Canada utilized dry-bottom-feed stone column installation techniques, which was the preferred method of the General Contractor. Stone columns were installed to 15m depth on a regular grid pattern to meet the specified CPT tip resistance performance-based requirements.

Densification work began with an initial trial area consisting of 20 stone columns to assess the effectiveness of the proposed methods and stone column spacing. Production work applied similar methodologies to those proven successful in the trial area.

Special precautions were implemented to avoid distress to an existing jet fuel line located within 2m of densification limits. Menard Canada first pre-bored and cased the upper 3m of the nearest stone columns and coordinated with the Engineer who monitored vibration, settlement and pressure of the fuel line during stone column installation.

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